In our study, we identified that FM inhabitants associate family doctors with management, need far more particular and system-amount management education, and believe that leadership education could be amplified in the present curriculum and set up in new areas.

The considerable variation (p < 0.001) between the Likert scale scores for the highest-ranked leadership ideal ('Family physicians should take on leadership roles in their clinical settings') and the lowest-ranked ('I am a leader') implies that there is room for growth regarding residents' development as leaders. The results are generally higher than those of other studies that used the same scale [5, 7].

In resident education, current leadership curriculum